1. The amount of change in an outcome attributed to an activity. This requires an estimation of how much change is contributed by others and/or would happen anyway (counterfactual).
  2. A long-term change in an outcome (aspects of well-being) caused by an entity’s actions or decisions either directly through its products, services or own operations; or indirectly through its supply and value chain(s). Impacts can be positive or negative, intended or unintended, primary or secondary.


  1. Glossary 2.0 – Social Value International. (2023). Social Value International.
  2. Impact Frontiers (2022, August 2). Impact Management Norms. Retrieved September 19, 2022, from
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